Thursday, July 23, 2009


1 Adilabad district

Adilabad is a district in Andhra Pradesh, India. The district headquarters is at Adilabad town. It belongs to the relatively underdeveloped Telangana

part of the state. A famous Temple of the Goddess Saraswathi, the Hindu Goddess of Education, is located here.
History and formation

The Adilabad district was named after the ruler of Bijapur Sultanate, Ali Adil Shah. The district was for long not a homogeneous unit and its

component parts were ruled at different periods by dynasties namely, the Mauryas, Staavahanas, Vakatakas, Chaludyas of Badami, Rashtrakututs,

Chalukyas of Kalyani, Mughals, Bhosle Rajes of Nagpur and Asaf Jahis, besides the Gond Rajas of Sirpur and Chanda.

Originally this was a sub-district named Sirpur-Tandur which was created in A.D. 1872 with Edlabad (Adilabad), Rajura and Sirpur as its constituent

talukas. In 1905, an independent district with headquarters at Adilabad was formed.

Agriculture is the main occupation of the people in the district. The geographical area of the district is 4,004,035 acres (16,203.75 km2). The land used

under different types is : forest land 42.8%, land put to non-agricultural uses 3.7% and Net agricultural area 35.4%.

The predominant Crop grown in the district is Jowar which accounts for 31.8% of the total cropped area. Paddy accounts for 10.8%, pulses and

non-food crops for 34.7% of the total cropped area.

Adilabad ranks first in revenue generation from mineral deposits in Andhra Pradesh. It is well endowed with rich reserves of coal, iron ore, lime stone

and clays.

There are 15 large scale industries and 1904 small scale industries in the district and 203 other factories and workshops. There are 97 cotton ginning

mills and 101 oil mills.

The major industries are:

1. The Singareni Collieries Co. Ltd, Bellampally
2. Coal Chemical Complex, Ramakrishnapur, near Mancherial
3. The Sirpur Paper Mills Ltd., Kagaznagar
4. Orient Cement Factory, Devapur
5. The Mancherial Cement Co. Ltd, Mancherial
6. Penganga Oils Ltd., Adilabad
7. Quality Spinning Mills, Bhainsa
8. The Adilabad Cotton Growers Coop.
9. The Nataraj Spinning and Weaving mill, Nirmal
10. The SirSilk Ltd., Kagaznagar [ Now Defunct ]
11. Annapurna Cement Ltd., Samela, Asifabad.
12. GS Oils Pvt. Ltd.,Adilabad
13. Kashiprasad and Sons Pvt. Ltd, Adilabad.
14. Makhanlala Rajkumar Co.,Adilabad.


Adilabad district comprises 52 Mandals and 1743 villages. There are 7 Municipalities in the district.

The district is conveniently divided into 5 divisions

1. Adilabad
2. Nirmal
3. Utnoor
4. Asifabad
5. Mancherial

Mandals of Adilabad district are

1. Adilabad
2. Asifabad
3. Bazarhathnoor
4. Bejjur
5. Bellampalle
6. Bhainsa
7. Bheemini
8. Boath
9. Chennur
10. Dahegaon
11. Dandepalle
12. Dilawarpur
13. Gudihathnur
14. Ichoda
15. Inderavelly
16. Jainad
17. Jainoor
18. Jaipur
19. Jannaram
20. Kaddam Peddur
21. Kagaznagar
22. Kasipet
23. Kerameri
24. Khanapur
25. Kotapalle
26. Kouthala
27. Kubeer
28. Kuntala
29. Lakshettipet
30. Laxmanchanda
31. Lokeswaram
32. Mamda
33. Mancherial
34. Mandamarri
35. Mudhole
36. Narnoor
37. Nennal
38. Neradigonda
39. Nirmal
40. Rebbena
41. Sarangapur
42. Sirpur T
43. Sirpur U
44. Talamadugu
45. Tamsi
46. Tandur
47. Tanur
48. Tiryani
49. Utnoor
50. Vemanpalle
51. Wankdi.

2. Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh

Hyderabad once known as Bhagya Nagaram (City of Fortune), is the capital city and most populous city of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. The

city of Hyderabad has grown to merge surrounding urban nodes taking its estimated population to around 8.8 million. The city thus has been classified

as an A-1 status city joining the list of other A-1 cities such as Mumbai, Delhi, Kolkata, Chennai and Bangalore.

Hyderabad is known for its rich history, culture and architecture representing its unique character as a meeting point for North and South India, and

also its multilingual culture, both geographically, culturally and intellectually. Also known as The City of Nizams and The City of Pearls,[1] Hyderabad

is today one of the fast developing cities in the country and a modern hub of Information Technology, ITES, and Biotechnology.

Hyderabad has become a preferred conference venue in India as well as the world, with many conferences and meetings taking place in the city. The

city is home to the world's largest film studio, the Ramoji Film City as well as the second largest film industry in the country, the Telugu Film Industry

known popularly as Tollywood. The city is also known to be a sporting destination with many national and international games conducted here. The

people here are called Hyderabadis. The city is regarded as a blend of traditionality with modernity.
History of Hyderabad

Hyderabad's history dates back to 500 BC, as proved by the discovery of numerous Iron Age sites belonging to that era.[3]

Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah, a ruler of the Qutb Shahi dynasty the ruling family of the Golconda, previously a feudatory of Bahmani sultanate that

declared independence in 1512, founded the city of Hyderabad on the banks of the Musi River in 1591;[4] to relieve a water shortage the dynasty had

experienced at their old headquarters at Golconda.[5] He also ordered the construction of the Charminar, the iconic monument of the city, in 1591,

reportedly in gratitude to the Almighty for arresting the plague epidemic before it did irreversible damage to his new city.[6]

The Mughal emperor Aurangzeb captured Hyderabad in 1687 and during this short Mughal rule. But the Mughal-appointed governors of the city

soon gained autonomy. In 1724, Asaf Jah I, who was granted the title Nizam-ul-Mulk ("Governor of the country") by the Mughal emperor, defeated a

rival official to establish control over Hyderabad. Thus began the Asaf Jahi dynasty that ruled Hyderabad until a year after India's independence

from Britain. Asaf Jah's successors ruled as the Nizams of Hyderabad. The rule of the seven Nizams saw the growth of Hyderabad both culturally and

economically. Hyderabad became the formal capital of the kingdom and Golconda was almost abandoned. Huge reservoirs, like the Nizam Sagar,

Tungabhadra, Osman Sagar, Himayat Sagar, and others were built. Survey work on Nagarjuna Sagar had also begun during this time; the actual work

was completed by the Government of India in 1969. The wealth and grandeur of the Nizams is demonstrated by the fabled Jewels of The Nizams

which is a tourist attraction.The state was richest and the largest among the princely states of India.The land area of the state was 90,543 mi² its

population in 1901 was 5,00,73,759. It enjoyed an estimated revenue of £9,00,29,000.

Before 1947, Hyderabad was under the suzerainty of the British Crown but was not part of British India. In 1947, at the time of the independence of

British India and its Partition into the Union of India and the new state of Pakistan, the British abandoned their claim to suzerainty over the Princely

states and left them to decide their own future. The Nizam wished either to remain independent or to accede to Pakistan. However, India then

implemented an economic blockade and forced the state of Hyderabad to sign a Standstill Agreement with it. In 1948, more than a year after India

had gained its independence, Hyderabad was invaded in Operation Polo and on 17 September 1948 the Nizam signed an Instrument of Accession to

the Union of India.

On November 1, 1956, the states of India were reorganized on linguistic grounds. The territories of the State of Hyderabad were divided between

newly created Andhra Pradesh, Bombay state (later Maharashtra), and Karnataka. Hyderabad and the surrounding areas were added to Andhra

Pradesh, based on the Telugu speaking community. Thus, Hyderabad became the capital city of the new state of Andhra Pradesh.

After becoming the capital, the city slowly started to shun the shadow of a princely state and gain importance politically, geographically and

economically. People from various parts of the state started settling and investing here. Since '90s the city has transformed itself hugely to acquire

the present form, thanks to liberalisation. This brought many changes in lifestyle, culture. It saw the makeshift of Telugu filmdom from Chennai to

Hyderabad. The growth in IT sector and construction of International Airport witnessed rise in various other fields like realestate in 2000s.


The city is administered by Greater Hyderabad Municipal Corporation (GHMC),[10] whose titular head is the Mayor of Hyderabad who has few

executive powers. In the past, the mayor was chosen by the legislative body of the corporation, but just before the last elections, the state government

modified the Hyderabad Municipal Corporation Act, 1955, to stipulate that the mayoral election be held directly and simultaneously with the

corporation elections. The real executive power of the corporation is vested in the Municipal Commissioner, an IAS officer appointed by the Andhra

Pradesh state government. The Mayor and the Corporation legislative body can and have been in the past dismissed by the state government. For

several years elections had not been held for the corporation. Recently the corporation completed its full term and elections are due to the GHMC

and for the post of Mayor.

A large part of the twin city Secunderabad and some parts of Hyderabad itself come under the jurisdiction of the Secunderabad Cantonment Board

(SCB) owing to a large presence of military units. It provides basic infrastructure like roads, parks, water and other municipal needs to the public

residing here.

The city is divided by the state police into Hyderabad Police and Cyberabad Police which come under the state Home Ministry and are headed by

Police Commissioners, who are IPS officers. Basheerbagh, houses important government offices such as the Police Commissioner's office, Police

Control room, Income tax Commissioner's office, Central Excise and customs office, Central Reservation office etc. The city is divided into five police

zones, each headed by a Deputy Commissioner of Police. The Traffic Police is a semi-autonomous body under the Hyderabad and Cyberabad


The GHMC is in charge of the civic needs and the infrastructure of the city. Hyderabad is divided into 150 municipal wards, each overseen by a

corporator. The corporators of the administration are elected through popular vote, and almost all the political parties field candidates.The twin cities

of Hyderabad and Secunderabad are in three districts, Hyderabad, Rangareddy and Medak. The administration of each district is headed by a

District Collector who is in charge of property records and revenue collection for the Central government. The district collectors also oversees the

elections held in the city.

Hyderabad Metropolitan Development Authority (HMDA), a planning agency headed by the Chief Minister along with a Commissioner has been

formed to undertake developmental activities in a jurisdiction of above 6,250 km².

Hyderabad is the seat of the Andhra Pradesh High Court, and also has two lower courts - the Small Causes Court for civil matters and the Sessions

Court for criminal cases. The High Court and Legislative Assembly-Council are heritage buildings built by Nizam.

Hyderabad voters send 24 members to the Assembly, whose constituencies come under 5 Lok Sabha segments, in respect to the delimitation of

constituencies coming into force w.e.f. 2009 general elections.

The new Assembly segments and their respective Lok Sabha segments are: Amberpet, Jubilee Hills, Khairatabad, Musheerabad, Nampally,

Sanathnagar, Secunderabad under Secunderabad LS seat; Bahadurpura, Chandrayanagutta, Charminar, Goshamahal, Karwan, Malakpet, Yakutpura

under Hyderabad LS seat; Kukatpally, Lal Bahadur Nagar (LB Nagar), Malkajgiri, Quthbullapur, Secunderabad Cantonment, Uppal under

Malkajgiri LS seat; Maheswaram, Rajendranagar and Serilingampally under Chevella LS seat and Patancheru under Medak LS seat.

Hyderabad is the financial and economic capital of the state of Andhra Pradesh. The city is the largest contributor to the state's gross domestic

product, state tax and excise revenues. The workforce participation is about 29.55 percent. Starting in the 1990s, the economic pattern of the city has

changed from being a primarily service city to being one with a more diversified spectrum, including trade, transport, commerce, storage,

communication etc. Service industry is the major contributor, with urban workforce constituting 90% of the total workforce.[citation needed]

Hyderabad is known as the city of pearls, lakes and, lately, for its IT companies. The bangles market known as Laad Bazaar is situated near

Charminar. Products such as silverware, saris, Nirmal and Kalamkari paintings and artifacts, unique Bidri handcrafted items, lacquer bangles studded

with stones, silk-ware, cotton-ware and handloom-based clothing materials are made and traded through the city for centuries.

Hyderabad is a major centre for pharmaceuticals with companies such as Dr. Reddy's Laboratories, Matrix Laboratories, Hetero Drugs Limited,

Divis Labs, Aurobindo Pharma Limited, Lee Pharma and Vimta Labs being housed in the city. Initiatives such as Genome Valley, Fab City and the

Nano Technology park are expected to create extensive infrastructure in bio-technology.

Like many Indian cities, Hyderabad has witnessed a remarkable growth in the real estate business, thanks to a predominantly

information-technology-driven boom in the 1990s and the retail industry growth over the last few years which have spurred hectic commercial activity.

A number of mega malls have come up or are being built in the city. Real estate demand in the suburban and rural areas surrounding Hyderabad has

gone up exponentially leading to reckless increase in prices over the past few years.

The retail industry in Hyderabad is on the rise. Many international and national brands have set up retail chains here. The city has multiple CBDs

(Central Business district) spread across the city. There are many major business/commercial districts from the older Charminar area to newer

Kothaguda. For the advancement of infrastructure in the city, the government is building a skyscraper business district at Manchirevula, near

Rajendranagar with a 450 m supertall structure APIIC Tower at its centre. Lanco Hills, Gachibowli, presents the tallest structure in India for

residential and commercial purposes.
Information Technology Industry

Hyderabad city is today known for its IT and IT-enabled services, pharmaceuticals and entertainment industries. Many software firms, call centres,

business process outsourcing (BPO) firms, dealing with IT and other technological services were set up in the 1990s making it one of the major

regions for call centre setups, technology development and KPO hubs in India. The development of a township with state-of-the-art facilities called

HITEC City prompted several IT and ITES companies to set up operations in the city. An aggressive promotion of growth in this area has led civic

boosters to call the city "Cyberabad". Hyderabad has also been referred to as the second Silicon Valley of India next to Bangalore.[12] There have

been extensive investments in digital infrastructure within the city promoting the setting up of several campuses by a vast array of companies within

the city. This list includes several multinational corporations having established their development centres in the city. The major areas where such

campuses have been set up are Madhapur, Kondapur, Gachibowli and Uppal.

Hyderabad is the south asian home to many Fortune 500 Corporations, majority of them are related to IT or BPO services industry. Microsoft (the

largest R&D campus outside the US), Computer Associates, Amazon, GE, IBM,AMD, Accenture, Google, Motorola, DuPont, Deloitte, Oracle

Corporation, Dell, Franklin Templeton, Qualcomm, Agilent, ADP, UBS AG, Rockwell Collins, Bank of America, CSC, Verizon, Convergys, Texas

Instruments, Hewlett-Packard, Virtusa, are some the Fortune 500 companies that have significant presence in Hyderabad. Honeywell opened a new

R&D centre at Nanakramguda, which is situated on the verge of Gachibowli.

Indian IT giants such as Satyam, Infosys, Wipro, Patni Computer Systems, Cognizant Technologies, Tata Consultancy Services, Four-Soft Ltd, ICICI

Bank, Cybage, Polaris, Infotech Enterprises, Avineon, Apollo Health Street, Zavata Inc and Mayur's group of industries also have set up their

development centres in the city.

The Andhra Pradesh State Road Transport Corporation[14] runs a fleet of 19,000 buses, the largest in the world.[15] Hyderabad has the third largest

bus station facility in Asia, with 72 platforms for 89 buses to load passengers at a time. Officially named as the Mahatma Gandhi Bus Station, it is

locally known as the Imlibun Bus Station, making trips across the state and to some parts of South India. Jubilee Bus Station at Secunderabad runs

buses to various parts of the state. Buses plying in and around the city provide major commutation for city dwellers.

The yellow colored Auto Rickshaw usually referred to as an "auto", is the most widely used transport/ taxi service and has flag down minimum fare of

Rs 12 for first 1.5 km and then Rs 7 per km. Radio Taxis and cabs by private players have provided an easy travel in the city.

Hyderabad is connected to the rest of the country by National Highways—NH-7, NH-9 and NH-202.Hyderabad is well connected to remaining parts

of the state. Like other cities, Hyderabad suffers from traffic congestion. Completion of the Inner Ring Road and construction of the Outer Ring

Road encircling Hyderabad city is also underway and is touted to make travel in the city easier. Many flyovers and undepasses are also being

constructed to ease traffic congestion in the city.

Hyderabad has a light rail transportation system cum suburban railway system known as the MultiModal Transport System (MMTS) which offer

connectivity between rail and road transport for the facility of the commuters. MMTS provides connectivity to all major parts of the city, and is a

suitable alternative for those who want to avoid road traffic.

The South Central Railway headquarters are located at Secunderabad. Secunderabad is one of the biggest railway junctions in the Indian Railway

map. The three main railway stations are Secunderabad Railway Station, Hyderabad Railway Station (Nampally) and Kachiguda Railway Station,

providing connectivity not only within the city but also to the rest of the state and country. A moden railway terminal is being planned to be

constructed near HITEC City railway station to facilitate passengers in the western parts of the city.

There has been an unprecedented increase in the number of passengers leading to increased air traffic. The Airport at Begumpet was unable to cope

up with the situation and was shut down on 22 March 2008. The new state-of-the-art Rajiv Gandhi International Airport opened on March 2008 by

Sonia Gandhi at Shamshabad, southwest of the city. The airport has the second longest runway in India next to Delhi and caters to the high passenger

and cargo transits. The airport runs flights to all important destinations, both domestically and internationally.

An elevated expressway, named after PV Narasimha Rao, at a length of 11.633 km is being constructed from Mehdipatnam to Aramgarh for

providing dedicated high speed travel to the airport. Once completed it will be the longest flyover in India. A proposal for extending the MMTS to the

new airport is under consideration. There are three wide roads leading to the new airport from the city and modern taxis can shuttle passengers

between the city and the airport. The Nehru Outer Ring Road between Gachibowli and Shamshabad will also serve as an expressway to the airport.
Culture of Hyderabad

The City has evolved into a cosmopolitan society due to the heavy presence of the Information technology Industry while maintaining ancient culture

and traditions. Historically, Hyderabad has been the city where distinct cultural and linguistic traditions of North India and South India meet.

Hyderabadis, as residents of the city are known, have developed a distinctive culture which is a mixture of Hindu and Muslim traditions.

Women of all cultures and faiths in Hyderabad typically wear either the traditional Indian dress, the sari, or, increasingly, the Salwar kameez

especially among the younger population. The traditional Hyderabadi garb for females are the Khara Dupatta and the Shalwar Qamis, and for the

males, it is the Sherwani. This is one of the more visible cultural attributes of Hyderabad. One of Hyderabad's public carnivals is the annual

immersion of Lord Ganesh idols after the 10 day Ganesh Chaturthi celebrations on Ananta Chaturdashi (locally known as the Ganesh Nimajjanam). It

is a spectacular event and attracts many foreigners every year. Bonalu is a vernacular festival that is celebrated with great fervour. Another is the

procession of Muharram which takes place every year 10th Muharram (1st month of Islamic calendar). While this event is mourned throughout the

Shia Muslim world , the old city of Hyderabad, known as 'Charminar' is famed for its grand procession in which participants sacrifice their own blood

by hitting on their heads, chest and back with sharp edge weapons (knives, swords and knives attached to chains).

Hyderabadi cuisine is a blend of Mughal and Persian cuisine. Hyderabadi Biryani is an iconic dish of the region. Other native preparations include

Qubani ka meetha, Double ka meetha, Phirni (a sweet vermicelli porridge eaten during the festival of Deepawali), Nahari Kulche also known as paya

and Haleem (a meat dish traditionally eaten during the holy month of Ramzan), Kaddu Ki Kheer(A sweet porridge made with sweet guard), Sheer

Qorma(a sweet liquidy dish cooked with vermicelli and milk), Mirchi ka saalan, Bagaare Baigan, Khatti Dal, Khichdi and Khatta, Til ki chutney,

baigan ki chutney, Til ka Khatta, Aam ka Achaar, Gosht ka achaar, Peosi[a sweet prepared with egg whites and milk], Shahi Tukde, Kheema Aaloo.

Indian sweets are known for their ghee-based items. Famous sweet shops include the traditionally made Pullareddy Sweets. Widely found on

street-corners are Irani café's that offer Irani chai, Irani samosa and Osmania biscuit.

The Western junkfood, Italian, Mexican and Chinese cuisine are all popular in the city along with typical Andhra and other South Indian cuisine. The

city also has some of the best pubs in South Asia and is increasingly becoming a favourite destination for Trance Music.

Hyderabad has some of the best hotels meeting all ranges of people. Some of the 5 star hotels are ITC Kakatiya Sheraton, Taj Krishna, Taj Deccan,

Hotel Novotel Hyderabad, Hyderabad Marriott, Tulip Manohar, Hotel Ista etc.; 4 star hotels like Hotel Greenpark, Hotel Peppermint, Hotel Kasani

GR etc.. Hotel Novotel Hyderabad Airport at Shamshabad is the newly built hotel for passengers coming from various countries to Hyderbad. Many

hotels are in the pipeline in view of the increasing demand in this sector.
Education and research

Hyderabad is an important seat of learning in India. It is surrounded by hundreds of engineering colleges.The city is home to three central

universities, two deemed universities, and six state universities. Among them is the Osmania University, established in 1917, which is the seventh

oldest university in India and the third oldest in South India.[20] Important institutions for technical education such as International Institute of

Information Technology, Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University are located in this city. Acharya N.G. Ranga Agricultural University, a well

known educational institution in the field of Agriculture is located on the outskirts of the city. Important medical institutions such as the Gandhi

Medical College, Osmania Medical College and several other private medical colleges such as Deccan College of Medical Sciences are located in

Hyderabad.Birla Institute of Technology and Science-(BITS Pilani) has established its branch campus at Shamirpet. IIT has started off its temporary

campus at Hyderabad.

The Indian School of Business, a top ranking business school which attracts students from all over the world is present at Gachibowli, Hyderabad.

Hyderabad Central University, National Academy of Legal Studies & Research, Potti Sreeramulu Telugu University, Maulana Azad National Urdu

University and English and Foreign Languages University, Indira Gandhi National Open University, Flytech Aviation Academy are other famous

universities which are present in the city.

Hyderabad has various research institutes such as the Indian Institute of Chemical Technology (IICT), Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology

(CCMB), National Geophysical Research Institute(NGRI), IRISET for railway signal engineering and ICRISAT. Defence Research and

Development Organisation (DRDO) along with DRDL and DERL has research centres in Hyderabad to develop communication and radar systems

and for the Integrated Guided Missile Development Programme (IGMDP). Nuclear energy sector has a strong presence with three organisations

under Department of Atomic Energy (India) including the Atomic Minerals Directorate for Exploration and Research (AMD), Nuclear Fuel Complex

(NFC) and Electronics Corporation of India Limited (ECIL).
Film Industry

Hyderabad is home to the second largest film industry in India, Telugu cinema, also known as Tollywood which produces approximately 150 movies

every year. Saradhi Studios, Annapurna Studios, Ramanaidu Studios, Ramakrishna Studios, Padmalaya Studios, Ramoji Film City (the largest Film

Studio in the India) are some of the notable film studios in the city. The first Hyderabad International Film Festival (HIFF) was organised in 2007 by

the Hyderabad Film Club and Andhra Pradesh Film Directors Association.The largest IMAX 3D Theater in the state is Prasads IMAX along with 4D

Simulator at Hyderabad, India. Adlabs Goldspot, PVR Cinemas, Cine Planet, BIG Cinemas and Talkie Town are some other multiplexes in

Hyderabad. In the year 2009, 17 multiplexes are going to open including one by the Maducon group at Kukatpally.
Arts & Theater

Ravindra Bharati located at Saifabad, is an important and well known center for theatre and performing arts in the city. Many artists from around the

world perform here regularly. Lalithakala Thoranam, Shilpakala Vedika are also similar centers for arts and theatre. State-of-the-art Hyderabad

International Convention Center (HICC) or simply HITEX is the first of its kind in South Asia and is now one among the world's great convention

Electronic Media

The radio industry has expanded with a number of private and government owned FM channels being introduced. The FM radio channels that

broadcast in the city include AIR Vividh Bharathi FM (102.8 MHz), AIR Rainbow FM (101.9 MHz), Radio Mirchi FM (98.3 MHz), Radio City FM

(91.1 MHz), Big FM (92.7 MHz), S FM (93.5 MHz) and AIR Gyan Vani FM (107.6 MHz). State-owned Doordarshan transmits two terrestrial

television channels and one satellite television channel from Hyderabad. Some prominent private regional television channels broadcasting from

Hyderabad are ETV, Gemini, Teja, Maa TV, ETV Urdu, Vissa, ETV2, TV9, Zee Telugu, NTV, TV5, RTV, Bhakthi TV, Samskruthi.
Print Media

Hyderabad has three print media groups that publish several newspapers and magazines in English, Telugu and Urdu. The major Telugu dailies

include the Eenadu, Saakshi, Vaartha, Andhra Jyothi, Andhra Prabha, Andhra Bhoomi, Praja Shakthi. The major English dailies are The Deccan

Chronicle, Business Standard, The Hindu, The Times of India, The Indian Express and The Economic Times. Hyderabad publishes more number of

Urdu dailies than any other Indian city. The major Urdu dailies are The Siasat Daily, The Munsif Daily, The Etemaad, Rehnuma-e-Deccan,

Rozanama Rashtriya Sahara and The Daily Milap.
Communication Services

Hyderabad is covered by a large network of optical fibre cables. There are four fixed telephone line operators in the city: BSNL, Tata Indicom,

Reliance and Airtel. There are seven mobile phone companies in which GSM players include BSNL, Vodafone, Idea, Airtel; CDMA services offered

by BSNL, Virgin Mobile, Tata Indicom and Reliance currently, with Spice Telecom soon to launch its services.

Cricket and hockey are the most popular sports in the city. Hyderabad Sultans won the inaugural Premiere Hockey League championship in 2005.

The city took pride in hosting National Games and Afro-Asian Games. Hyderabad 10k Run is a marathon event conducted every year.

The earliest stadium built in the city is the Lal Bahadur Shastri Stadium. Formerly known as Fateh Maidan, it was, till recently, the city's only stadium

that could conduct International cricket matches. The first cricket match played here was on November 19, 1955. The stadium is currently being used

to conduct ICL matches. The new Rajiv Gandhi International Cricket Stadium at Uppal has a capacity of approximately 55,000 spectators and is

being enhanced to have world class facilities. It houses an ultra-modern gymnasium along with a swimming pool. Hyderabad's Deccan Chargers

franchise in the Indian Premier League was bought by Deccan Chronicle for USD 107 million. Notable players include Adam Gilchrist, Andrew

Symonds, VVS Laxman, Herschelle Gibbs, Scott Styris, RP Singh, Shahid Afridi, Rohit Sharma and Chaminda Vaas.

The city houses the Swarnandhra Pradesh Sports Complex, the G.M.C. Balayogi Athletic Stadium at Gachibowli for hockey and football and a

sophisticated Velodrome for cycling at Osmania University. The city has state-of-the-art venues for gymnastics, archery and sepak takraw, shooting

at Saroornagar Indoor Arena and University of Hyderabad respectively. The Aquatics Complex Stadium at Gachibowli, with a capacity of 3000

spectators hosts swimming, diving, water polo and synchronized events. Kotla Vijay Bhaskar Reddy Indoor Stadium is a multi-purpose stadium with a

capacity of 2500 spectators and wooden flooring with temperature control. SAAP Tennis Complex has a central court that holds 5000 spectators and

has seven courts with synthetic surface. Water games like rowing, yachting, kayaking and canoeing are conducted at Hussain Sagar lake. The city

also has five Go-Karting tracks and a Paint Ball Field. There are venues for table-tennis, basketball, equestrianism, boxing, weight-lifting with world

class facilities.

The city is well known for Horse racing. The Hyderabad Race Club formerly known as the Nizam Race Club is located at Malakpet. The Hyderabad

race club attracts jockeys from all over the country by conducting various derbys/events here. Deccan derby, a popular annual event is a regular

feature here. The winter races also were conducted here recently. Badminton is played in various parks.
Tourist Attractions

* Charminar - the major landmark in Hyderabad with four graceful minarets located in the old city. It is built as a memorial for plague victims.

Charminar in most occasions is used to represent the city and the state and is hailed as a unique Deccan monument. It is in the midst of Charkaman.
* Falaknuma Palace - Built by an Italian architect through one of the Paigah nobles, Nawab Viqar al-Umra', complete in Italian marble. It's a beautiful

and stunning piece of architecture with Louis XIV-style decor, a lavish Mughal ambience, Italian marble staircases and ornate fountains. It has now

been undertaken by Taj group to develop this as Heritage Hotel.
* Golconda Fort - Once abandoned by Qutub Shahis, Golconda Fort is one of the most magnificent fortress complexes in India. Seated on a hill on one

side and spiraling fort on the other, it's location and internal design made it one of the strongest forts in the world.
* Chowmahalla Palace- It was the seat of Asaf Jahi dynasty, where the Nizam entertained his official guests and royal visitors. Initiated in 1750 by

Nizam Salabat Jung and designed along the lines of the Shah's palace in Isfahan, this actually consists of a group of palaces each used as a Durbar

Hall. It has now been aesthetically renovated and is also venue for conferences.
* Salar Jung Museum - The museum houses the largest one-man collection of antiques in the world. Collections includeThe Veiled Rebecca and other

huge collection of artifacts dating back to a few centuries. A mere day isn't enough to cover the whole museum.
* Taramati Baradari - It is Located near Golconda on the way to Gandipet. It was built by a Qutb Shahi sultan. Newly added structures are the venues

to many conferences. Similar structures like Premavati and Bhagmati can be seen from here.
* Mecca Masjid - a stone-built mosque, which lies immediate southwest of Charminar. Remarkable for its architecture, size and its royal splendor,

this is one of the most beautiful mosques in Hyderabad. It is famous for its symmetry and the gateway bricks that are believed to be from Mecca.
* Birla Mandir - a Hindu temple made of white marble located on top of a hill overlooking the city.
* Birla Science Museum - The science centre is another beautiful structure, reflecting the advances made in science and technology. The interior

décor matches the architectural exterior of the centre built over 10,000 sq ft (930 m2). The centre is host to a number of divisions such as the

Planetarium, the Science Museum, and the centre for Applied Mathematics and Computer Sciences.
* Public Gardens - Located adjacent to the Lal Bahadur Shastri Stadium, the gardens host the Horticulture department of Andhra Pradesh, the state

museum of history and archeology and a sprawling park. Beside this is the Lalithakala thoranam, which is a venue for various cultural activities.
* Ravindra Bharati - The stage for all performing arts, especially for those enhancing the state and Indian cultures. Shows are held almost every

evening throughout the calendar year which include musical and dance performances, drama, award ceremonies and special events of the government.
* Birla Planetarium - The Planetarium is another magnificent building with a big dome resembling that of the Gol Gumbaz in Bijapur and some of the

earliest government structures in New Delhi. A special attraction are the shows which unveil the mysteries of the cosmos and the origins of the

universe, comets, eclipses, unidentified flying objects and the clash of titans. The latest addition is the Dinosaurium, which houses a collection of

dinosaur egg fossils. The highlight of the museum is a mounted Kotasaurus yamanpalliensis, the remains of a 160 million old dinosaur.
* Purani Haveli - The official residence of the Nizam.
* King Kothi Palace - The last Nizam, Mir Osman Ali Khan lived here.
* Qutub Shahi Tombs - Home to various Tombs dedicated to Rulers of Qutub Shahi dynasty, located at Shaikpet, near Golconda Fort. These are an

example of Deccan architecture with large minarets, huge domes, delicate marble designs and multiple inner passages.
* Paigah Tombs - These are recently discovered series of mausoleums with unique geometrical sculptures which were no where found in the world.

These are located at Chandrayanagutta. Paigahs were noblemen under the reign of Nizams.
* Lumbini Park - This is one of the popular parks in the city. The main attraction of this park was the Musical fountain. It is now replaced by the 1500

seater Laserium, the first of its kind in the state. Boat rides take you across the lake to give you a closer glimpse of the Buddha.
* Ananda Buddha Vihara - It is a Buddhist tourist destination. Located at posh Mahendra Hills, it houses meditation hall, a museum and rest houses

for monks etc.
* Hussain Sagar - It is a man-made lake is also famous for the 19-metre tall Buddha statue on a platform island called Rock of Gibraltar in the middle

of the lake, and for the Tank Bund which consists of beautiful gardens and statues of famous personalities. Boating and water sports are a regular

feature here. Tall monolithic Buddha statue erected in the middle of the lake adds charm to this lake.
* Nehru Zoological Park - This zoo is the largest in India by area, houses a large variety of animals, birds, nocturnal species, aquatic and amphibian

species. Located close to this is the Mir Alam Sagar, which is proposed to be converted into an Aquarium along the lines of Sentosa, Singapore. Its

unique feature is the 21 in-built masonry dams that are jewel shaped, which were built in 1806 by the then prime minister Mir Alam.
* Kotla Vijayabhaskara Reddy Botanical Gardens - These gardens located at Kondapur are spread across a sprawling area of 130 acres (0.53 km2),

housing different varieties of herbs, plants, trees etc. These gardens provide a complete visual treat to the eyes with water bodies, meadows and rich

grasslands - nature at its best. Night Safari Park is adjacent to this.
* Chilukuru Balaji Temple - It is the temple of Lord Sri Venkateshwara. Located around 23 km from Mehdipatnam.
* Necklace road - This popular boulevard lies on the other side of the lake, linking the IMAX theatre and Sanjivaiah park. This has become

the-place-to-be for the Hyderabadis in the evenings. This strip provides a scenic atmosphere with lush lawns and long rows of flower beds.

Eat-Street,Water Front are popular restaurants located on this strip. The latest addition to this strip is the Jala Vihar, a mini water world designed to

soothe your senses.
* NTR Gardens - This leisure spot is located beside the IMAX theatre. Situated on 36 acres (150,000 m2) of land adjoining the Hussain sagar, these

gardens provide of entertainment and recreation to families and youth alike. It also houses a memorial of Late Shri N.T.Rama Rao, former Chief

Minister. It is renowned for its creative design which includes tree-top restaurants and architecture.
* Osman Sagar, Gandipet - A man-made lake, the largest in Hyderabad. The lake is a major drinking water source to the city. Abutting the lake are

lush gardens that provide an ideal ambience for a holiday.
* Himayat Sagar - It is the twin lake to Gandipet lake. It comes along the way on Outer Ring Road enroute to airport which is a beautiful view.
* Laad Bazaar - Also called Chudi Bazaar is on the west of Charminar, and known for its exquisite bangles, jewelry and pearls.
* Lotus Pond - A beautiful garden built around a pond situated in Jubilee Hills, said to have been designed by an Italian designer. This garden is

currently maintained by the Municipal Corporation. It is also home to a few rare species of birds.
* Durgam Cheruvu - Also called The Secret Lake it is a peaceful boulevard near the bustling Madhapur.
* Shilparamam- Located opposite Cyber towers, HITEC city, it is an arts and crafts village which was conceived with an idea to create an environment

for the preservation of traditional crafts such as sculpting wonders from stone, weaving in cotton, silk and gold thread, Dhaka muslin, Kondapalli toys,

Bankura horses, gudda-guddis of Punjab, temple arts and a motley of Indian arts and crafts. Close proximity to this is the Shilpakala vedika, a

conference hall built with exquisite ethnic decor as well as with all state-of-the-art facilities.
* Sanghi Temple - A temple dedicated to Lord Venkateshwara graces a promontory overlooking Sanghi Nagar, near Ramoji Film City.
* Ramoji Film City (RFC) - It is the world’s largest integrated film studio cum theme park, at nearly 3,000 acres (8 km²). It is also one of Asia’s most

popular tourism and recreation centres. Recently, it has made its way to the Guinness Book of World Records for being the largest film studio in the

world. Opened in 1996, it is about 20 min. drive from Hyderabad on Vijayawada Highway.
* Kasu Brahmananda Reddy Park - A sanctuary for Peacocks and Anteaters along with many other species including Monkeys and Snakes, the

sanctuary is the green spot of the richest area of the city, Jubilee Hills.
* Mahaveer Harina Vanasthali Park - Located near posh locality of Vanasthalipuram, previously it is a hunting (shikari) spot for Nizams it is now a

picnic spot for the city people. Nischalvan Eco-tourism project is located here.
* Mriganavani wildlife sanctuary - A sanctuary for deer and leopards, it is located enroute to Chilkur. The Outer Ring Road passes over (flyover)

through this national park which is a thrilling experience.
* Anantagiri Hill station - Located near Vikarabad, just 2 hour drive from Hyderabad, it is the place where River Musi originated. It is an exotic hill

station far away from hustle and bustle of the city, providing trekking, camping and many adventures to do. Added to this are many up coming hill

resorts where you can spend a happy weekend or vacation. In one word to say it is the Araku Valley of Hyderabad.

Besides, many resorts like Pragati Green Meadows, Golkonda Spa cum Resort, Lahari Resorts, Alankrita Resorts, Dream Valley and recreation

spots like Treasure Island, Runway 9, Ocean Park, Mount Opera, Dhola-ri-Dhani make Hyderabad an ideal destination for tourists.

3. About Karimnagar

Karimnagar (is a city and a Municipal Corporation in Karimnagar district in the northern Telangana region of Andhra Pradesh, a state of India. It is

the administrative headquarters of Karimnagar District, located on the banks of the Manair river, which is a tributary of the river Godavari. It is the

third largest city in the Telangana region, with Hyderabad and Warangal being largest and second-largest, respectively. Karimnagar is located in the

heart of Telangana and situated 162 km north of Hyderabad, which the capital of Andhra Pradesh. It is one of the major business centers and is also

emerging as an education hub with two medical colleges, eight engineering colleges,a veterinary science college,a pharmacy college and two bed

colleges. A new university is currently being built. In addition, it is home to the Sree Raja Rajeshwara Govt. Degree College, which fondly called a

mini-university of Telangana (the other being Kakatiya University at Warangal).


Karimnagar was originally called Kareem Nagar, derives its name from Syed Karimullah Shah Saheb Quadri. It was one of the capitals during the

rule of the Nizams, and there are several famous people such as P.V. Narasimha Rao, Former Prime Minister of India, Dr C.Narayana Reddy

Renowned Poet,who hail from here. Karimnagar District is home to many tribes such as Gonds, Koyas, and Chenchus all who live in their own

settlements and speak their own dialects. The city is known for its hospitality and well behaved, hardworking people as well as its silver filigree work,

a very delicate form of metal craft. There are also many famous temples in Karimnagar, like kondagattu, Vemulawada,Dharmapuri etc. karimnagar is

the fastest growing city in telengana region,and has lot of potential to become one of the metropoliton cities in near future.


Karimnagar is a major road junction in Telangana. It is 162 kilometers from Hyderabad, 70 kilometers from Warangal and 150 kilometers from

Nizamabad. APSRTC, the state road transport corporation, has a zonal (consists of Adilabad, Nizamabad, Warangal, Khammam and Karimnagar

Dists) headquarters in Karimnagar. Karimnagar has one of the busiest bus stations in India.

Karimnagar is connected by a railway line with Peddapalli (40 kilometers) to the northeast and Jagitial (48 kilometers) to the northwest. The nearest

major railway junction is Kazipet Junction which has 147 trains passing through, including super fast trains such as the AP express and Rajadhani

express. The railway divisional headquarters are in Warangal.

The nearest airport to Karimnagar is at Basant Nagar, 15 km from Peddapalli and 50 km from Karimnagar, but it is a private airport constructed for

the owners of Kesoram Cement, the Birlas. The main source of air transportation is the international airport in Hyderabad.

Karimnagar is a major and important education centre after Warangal in North Telangana. Karimnagar has the following colleges & Universities.

University PG College (formerly know as Shatavahana PG College)
JNTU Karimnagar
Jyothishmathi Institute of Technology and Science(JITS)
Vivekananda college of engineering and technology
SRR Degree College
Kashmeergadda Women's College
Vivekananda Educational societies
Sri Chaitanya
KIMS Colleges
Vaageswari institute of engineering technology
Vivekananda institute of engineering & technology
SRM Colleges
Apoorva degree college
Intermediate colleges

Trinity Jr.College
Masters Jr.College
SRM Jr.College
Alphors Jr.College
Famous School

Gowtham Model School
Vindhya Valley School

Karimnagar has evolved into a major health centre in the last two decades being centrally located to all the talukas like Sircilla, Jagityal,

Ramagundam, Manthini, Jammikunta the patients come from all over, the district hospital played a pivotal role in treating the patients.
The major hospitals in the karimnagar are:

1. Government Hospital
2. Rekurthi Eye Hospital
3. Chalmeda Anand Rao Hospital
4. Prathima Institute of Medical Sciences
5. Bhoom Reddy Hospital
6. Ram Reddy Hospital
7. Jagannadh Reddy Hospital
8. Madekar Hospital
9. L. Ram Reddy Hospital
10. Laxman Hospital
10a. Apollo Reach Hospital
11. Sathya Sagar Hospital
12. Kutija Khatoon Hospital
13. Vamshi Krishna Nursing Home
14. Bhasker Hospital
15. Naveen kumar Hospital
16. Sujatha Nursing home
17. Roopshankar Hospital
18. Mohan reddy Hospital
19. Apollo Hospital
20. Jaganmohan Rao Hospital
21. Mohan Rao Hospital
22.Madhu clinic (Dr.P.Madhusudhan rao
Entertainment (movie theatres)

Rose Theatre
Nataraj Theatre
Bharath Theatre
Shiva 70MM
Srinivasa 70MM
Mamatha 70MM
Venkatasai 70MM
Sai Krishna 70MM
Sri Tirumala 70MM
Raja Deluxe 70MM
Thirumadaz Talkies
Venkateshwara Theatre

* My Village
* Abhishek
* Peacock
* Geetha Bhavan
* Srinivasa
* Blue Bird
* Kalpana
* My Choice
* Sai Bar and Restaurant
* Mehaphil Bar and Restaurant

Mandals in Karimnagar District

1) Ibrahimpatnam
2) Mallapur
3) Raikal
4) Sarangapur
5) Dharmapuri
6) Velgatoor
7) Ramagundam
8) Kamanpur
9) Manthani
10) Kataram
11) Mahadevpur
12) Muttaram-Mahadevpur
13) Malharrao
14) Muttaram-Manthani
15) Kalva Srirampur
16) Peddapalli
17) Julapalli
18) Dharmaram
19) Gollapally
20) Jagtial
21) Medipalli
22) Korutla
23) Metpally
24) Kathalapur
25) Chandurthi
26) Kodimial
27) Gangadhara
28) Mallial
29) Pegadapalle
30) Choppadandi
31) Sultanabad
32) Odela
33) Jammikunta
34) Veenavanka
35) Manakondur
36) Karimnagar
37) Ramadugu
38) Boinpalle
39) Vemulawada
40) Konaraopeta
41) Yella Reddi
42) Gambhiraopet
43) Mustabad
44) Sirsilla
45) Ellanthakunta
46) Bejjanki
47) Thimmapur
48) Kesavapatnam
49) Huzurabad
50) Kamalapur
51) Elkathurthi
52) Saidapur
53) Chigurumamidi
54) Koheda
55) Husnabad
56) Bheemadevarpalle
57) Eligedu

Places of interest

Elgandal Fort
Ramagiri Fort(BegumPet)
Lower Manair Dam
Kaman Karimnagar
Clock Tower Karimnagar
District Court Karimnagar
Governament Hospital Karimnagar
Ujwala Park Karimnagar
Rajeev Deer Park Karimnagar
NTPC Ramagundam
Singareni Colleries Godavarikhani
Kesoram Cement Factory Basant Nagar
Jagtial Fort (Jagtial Khila)

4. Khammam

Khammam is the headquarters of the Khammam District of India's Andhra Pradesh state.


The name of the town Khammam is derived from the name of a local hill called Stambhadri which has an ancient temple of Narasimha Swamy on its

top. This temple is believed to have been existing since Treta Yuga. The name of the town, Stambhadri, later became Kambhadri, Kambham mettu,

Khammam mettu and finally, Khammam when it became the district headquarters. The town is located on the banks of a river called Munneru which

is a tributary of the Krishna River. Khammam district has a lot of historical importance in Andhra Pradesh.

Khammam town which was the seat of Taluk Administration was part of the larger Warangal District, till 1 October, 1953. Five taluks of the Warangal

district viz., Khammam, Madhira, Yellandu, Burgampadu and Paloncha (Now Kothagudem) were carved out and a new district Khammam with

Khammam as District Headquarters. In 1959 Bhadrachalam Revenue Division consisting Bhadrachalam and Manuguru Venkatapuram Taluks of

East Godavari district, which were on the other side of the river Godavari were merged into Khammam on grounds of geographical contiguity and

administrative viability.

There is a festival held in Khammam remembering the old name "Stambhadri".
Tourist Destinations

* Bhadrachalam
* Khammam Fort
* Parnasala
* Nelakondapalli
* Kinnerasani
* Papi Hills
* Neeladri
* Madhira
* (saradiagar)

5. Mahbubnagar district

Mahbubnagar or Mehboobnagar or Palamooru is a district in Andhra Pradesh named after its district head quarters. It is located on 16.73 north latitude and 77.98 East longitudes. It is bounded on east by Nalgonda and Guntur districts, on west by Gulbarga district of Karnataka, on north by Rangareddy districts and on south by Kurnool district. The district had a population of 3,513,934 as of 2001 of which only 10.57% stay in district head-quarters (Urban area)[1]. Mahabubnagar district is the largest district in Telangana Region and the second largest in terms of area in Andhra Pradesh State and is well known for its greater percent of rural population. This district consists of 1553 Revenue Villages, 1347 Grama Panchayatis, 64 Mandals and 4 Revenue Divisions. Mahbubnagar District has 14 Assembly Constituencies and 2 Parliamentary Constituencies. The important towns in the district are Mahbubnagar, Narayanpet, Achampet, Gadwal, Wanaparthy, Jadcherla, Kalwakurthy, Shadnagar, Kodangal, Amarchintha, Makhtal, Alampur,Kollapur and Nagarkurnool. The district Headquarters is approximately 100 km southwest to the state capital Hyderabad.

This district is named in honor of Mir Mahbub Ali Khan Asaf Jah VI, the Nizam of Hyderabad (1869-1911 AD). Earlier to this the District was known as "Rukmammapeta" or "Palamooru" or "Cholawadi", the land of the Cholas. The name was changed to Mahbubnagar on 4th December 1890. It is said that the famous Golconda diamonds including famous 'KOHINOOR' diamond came from Mahbubnagar district.
Geography and climate

The district may be divided into more or less two distinct regions, the plains region with low lying scattered hills and the extensive Amarabad-Farhabad plateau, a continuous range of hills, of an average, elevation of about 800 meters, extending more or less, east-west along the Krishna river on the southern boundary of the district. The hill range is interspersed by several deep valleys, which are almost inaccessible from the plains. The forests in this district are known to contain timber trees like bijasal (pterocarpus marsupiun), Nalla maddi (terminalia tomentosa), Eppa (Hardwickia binata), ebony, teak, babul (Acacia arabica), mango and tamarind. The forest consists of brushwood, tarvar (cassia auriculata) and other plants used for fuel. Two important rivers, viz. Krishna and Tungabhadra flow through the district. The Krishna river enters Andhra Pradesh in Makthal taluk of this district and covers Makthal, Gadwal, Atmakur, Wanaparthi, Kollapur, Alampur and Achampet taluks. The Tungabhadra flows through the taluks of Gadwal and Alampur. The Dindi River, which is a tributary of the Krishna flows through Kalvakurthi and Achampet and joins the Krishna River, 18 miles east of Chandragiri. Pedavagu and Chinavagu are the other tributaries of the Krishna in the district. It is located in the semiarid region of India with recurring meteorological drought (because of erratic and scanty rainfall) and worsened by overexploitation of meager groundwater resources. More than 90% of the people of Mahbubnagar district speak Telugu and rest of them speak Urdu (mainly the muslims).

Telangana forms the core of the Shatavahana Dynasty (221BC-218 AD), Part of Chalukya Dynasty in South India (between 5th and 11th century AD) and in the recent history, it formed the core of the Golconda State and Hyderabad State, ruled by Qutub Shahi Dynasty (1520-1687) and autocratic Nizam Dynasty (Asaf Jahi Dynasty) (1724-1948) until it was taken over by New Delhi in 1948. This region became independent and joined in the democratic India on 18th September 1948. Telangana constitutes 10 districts: Adilabad, Hyderabad, Karimnagar, Khammam, Mahabubnagar, Medak, Nalgonda, Nizamabad, Rangareddy and Warangal districts.

The history of Mahabubnagar no-doubt had Buddhism with lot of historic Temples which are destroyed by Nizam rulers and at present not even one Buddhist temple is still alive in this territory.

Palamoor Samasthans tell us the recent history of some parts of this region, which are still familiar to Palamoor people.
Concern and development

The Mahbubnagar District is located in the Central Part of Peninsular India. The agriculture activity is intensive and the groundwater resources are meager. The southern part is relatively plain and has irrigation facilities from the projects on Tungabhadra and Krishna Rivers. The western part is backward and agriculture is also poor. The Northern part receives relatively more rainfall and greener and the agricultural activity is intensive.

Drought is ever persistent in Mahbubnagar District. The people’s adaptive and coping strategies have become a way of life. Seasonal migrations for alternative livelihood opportunities have become a tradition for some of the people. There are various ongoing projects / programmes in the district to mitigate the drought and its impact on livelihood opportunities. There are various departments in the District actively working for improving the livelihood opportunities, namely District Water Management Agency (DWMA), District Rural Development Agency (DRDA) / District Poverty Initiatives Programme (DPIP), Department of Agriculture, Department of Animal Husbandry, SC / ST / BC corporations and other line departments.

The means for living by all human beings - some survive and some thrive. In space and time the livelihood opportunities and options vary, there can be various factors responsible directly or indirectly. Livelihoods in the rural environment are diverse and are vulnerable to shocks and trends like Climate Change and Variability. And also there are certain policies and structures existing for the sustainability of the livelihoods. In space and time Sustainable Livelihoods are result of reduced vulnerability and increased adaptability.

Agriculture is the main livelihood activity and people are traditionally involved in agriculture but there is need for them to adapt to the organic and sustainable agricultural practices. There is also need to give them better skills in on-farm and off-farm related activities for coping with drought. There is scope to explore traditional knowledge in agricultural practices. PTD can be tried to innovate locally suitable sustainable agricultural practices. Seed banks could be promoted for conserving the traditional indigenous seeds which are resistant to climate variability. A grain bank can be promoted for food security. Majority of the farmers are small and marginal, there is a need to provide additional livelihood opportunities for the farmers. There is also need to provide with knowledge and technology to improve the existing lands and to bring the fallow lands under cultivation. Providing advise on cropping – choice of crops and management practices. There is a need for better extension of services by the agriculture department. Need to improve or work for non farm based livelihood activities, improvement of natural resources to cope in lean season and for food security.

There is a need to revive the dairy sector. The milk production is directly related to availability of fodder. The farmers are well aware of the leguminous fodder, there is a need to encourage and provide seed and other inputs for fodder improvement. Options for breed improvement could be explored for better management of livestock.

More area can be brought under cultivation through water conservation measures and practices (reduced paddy cultivation, installation of micro irrigation systems, etc.). Open wells could be converted into recharge wells and there is scope for renovation of existing tanks to increase the capacity of the tanks. Under the ongoing watershed programme there is scope for development in the following sectors - fodder development, Agro- and social forestry, horticulture development, promotion of quality of seeds, promotion of Vermiculture, Sustainable Agricultural methods, non-farm livelihoods, and facilitation for silt removal from the village tanks for application in the dry lands.

The people in the villages are mainly dependent on agriculture as primary activity. As majority of the farmers are marginal and small, there is need for livelihoods diversification by the people. The people need to be provided trainings and skills for adapting to diverse trades. This would also provide additional employment opportunities. People are well aware of the developments in various fields, therefore it is easy for them to diversify and adapt to other livelihood options.

Alternative livelihood options need to be provided to the educated youth in the village. The women and youth in the village should be imparted trainings in Micro-enterprise development. For example youth could be trained on electrical repairs (motor winding and pumps) and servicing home appliances etc.

Apart from the government and State colleges, the following are few private institutions. Mahabubnagar comes under the Osmania University jurisdiction and KDR Government Polytechnic in Wanaparthy:

* Madina Group of Institutions
* PHRM Degree College
* Medical College
* Engineering College
* Government Polytechnic
* SVS Medical College: Private Medical College in Mahabubnagar town
* Jaya Prakash Narayana Engineering College
* Sri Kottam Tulasi Reddy Memorial College Of Engineering
* Vardhaman Engineering College

Religious Places

* Mahabubnagr District has got many important temples, Dargas, Churches
* Alampur: Famous Lord Shivatemple in Alampur, Mahabubnagar Dt .It is southern gate of srisailam.
* Umamaheswaram: Famous Lord Shiva temple in Rangapur, Achampet,Mahabubnagar Dt. It is northern gate of srisailam.
* Jataprole: Famous Lord Santhana Venugopalaswamy temple which receives thousands of the devotees every day.
* Maddimadugu: Famous Lord anjaneya temple which receives thousands of the devotees every weekend.
* Sri Sri Sri Sadguru Avadhuth Narasimha Swami Math is located in Narayanpet of Mahabubnagar dist.
* Manyamkonda: Venkateswara Swami temple, about 10 km. from Mahbubnagar. This is also known as "Rendo Tirupathi" (Second Tirupathi).

6. Medak

Medak is a city and a municipality in Medak District in Telangana region of Andhra Pradesh, India. It is 100km to the north of Hyderabad.

Medak district is adorned by many temples depicting fine architectural splendours. They are located in the Bonthapally (Veerabhadra Swamy Temple, located at 25 km to the north of Hyderabad), Ismailkhanpet near to Sangareddy (Sapta Prakarauta Bhavani Mata Temple, located at 35 km to the Hyderabad), Zarasangam, Edupailu (Kanakadurga Temple, 8 km from Medak town, on the banks of Manjira river), Nachagiri temples (Lakshmi Narasimha Swamy Temple, 55 km from Hyderabad), Siddipet (Koti Ligeshwara Swamy Temple)and Chegunta Sri Kalyana Venkateshwara Swami Devasthaanam, Vasavi Kanyaka Parameshwari Ammavari Devalayam, Swayam Bhoo Mahakali Devasthaanam, Anjaneya Swami devalayam to name a few.sri sri chamundeshwari ammawari temple at chitkula village of andhole mandal,nearer to the jogipeta town. on the banks of manjira is also a famous shakti temple which is founded by sri ramanayya garu.The joginatha temple at jogipet & surya devalayam at dakur village are also equally important places in the district.

Medak district has typical Telangana culture.

Medak Church Built in 1914 by Charles Walker Pasnet is coined as the biggest church in the South India. It has taken 10 years of uninterrupted construction time for completion of the structure.

One of the main town in Medak district is Jogipet. It is famous for Joginath temple and Indian Freedom fighting Movement. Jagadama and Seva lal maharaj temple located 30 km away from Sangareddy headquarters. It is tribal temple and it is constructed during Laxmi Bai sarpanch period. Chamundeswari Temple on the banks of manjeera(godavari) is second biggest temple of chamundeswari goddess. Sri Ramalingeswara swamy devaliyam is constructed on the top of the hill and is 3 km from the Chamundeswari Temple.

Narsapur Forest, located 35 km from Hyderabad, is spread between Gummadidala and Narsapur. This forest covers 30 km². This has variety of trees, many lakes and supports wildlife. Lately, this has become a hotspot for Telugu film shootings.

Manjira Forest, located 75 km from Medak and 5 km from Sangareddy, is spread over 20 km². The average width of the sanctuary is 500 to 800 m. Nestling between Manjeera and Singoor barrages, the Manjira wild life sanctuary comprises nine small islands which are home to a number of resident and migratory birds in addition to marsh crocodiles and muggar.
Mandals at Medak District

There are 45 mandals in Medak district.[1] 1. Manoor 16. Siddipet 31. Kohir 2. Kangti 17. Chinna Kodur 32. Munpalle 3. Kalher 18. Nanganur 33. Pulkal 4. Narayankhed 19. Kondapak 34. Sadasivpet 5. Regode 20. Jagadevpur 35. Kondapur 6. Shankarampet 21. Gajwel 36. Sangareddy 7. Alladurg 22. Doultabad 37. Patancheru 8. Tekmal 23. Chegunta 38. Ramachandrapuram 9. Papannapet 24. Yeldurthy 39. Jinnaram 10. Kulcharam 25. Kowdipalle 40. Hathnoora 11. Medak 26. Andole 41. Narsapur 12. Shankarampet 27. Raikode 42. Shivampet 13. Ramayampet 28. Nyalkal 43. Tupran 14. Dubbak 29. Jharasangam 44. Wargal 15. Mirdoddi 30. Zahirabad 45. Mulug
History of Medak District

Medak, a historic town originally called Siddapur, later it known as Gulshanabad also, reached its pinnacle during the Kakatiya dynasty reign. Medak has a citadel dating back to the Kakatiyas. It was built during the reign of Kakatiya emperor Pratapa Rudra. Strategically built on a hillock, it was called the Methukudurgam (and Methukuseema), from the Telugu word Methuku - meaning cooked rice grain. The main entrance proudly displays the double-headed bird "Gandabherundam" of the Kakatiyas. The Medak fort stands as an epitome of architectural excellence of the Kakatiya dynasty. The water to the fort was served through a pipeline from a well inside the fort. It has three main entrances, the "Prathama Dwaram", the "Simha Dwaram" or Lions Entrance that has two snarling lions at the top of the entrance and the "Gaja Dwaram" or Elephant's Entrance that has a sculpture of two elephants interlocked on both sides of the entrance. At the fort one can see a 17th century cannon that is 3.2 meters long. The cannon has a trident etched on it. This fortress uses the natural topography to the maximum advantage with the rocky face offering it natural defenses.
Medak Cathedral

The Anglican Medak Cathedral, which belongs to the single largest diocese in Asia, is a priceless heritage. It was built by the British Wesleyan Methodists and is now under the Church of South India - Diocese of Medak.

This church was built during a famine that struck Medak during World War I. Reverend Charles Walker Posnett was posted as Reverend in Medak during that time. Moved by the plight of the people due to the unprecedented famine that lasted for three years, he proposed to build a great church at Medak in the year 1914. It took ten continuous years to complete this monumental piece of architecture. With its massive dimensions, 100 ft width and 200 ft. length, the church can accommodate as many as 5000 people at a time.

When the Nizam of Hyderabad came to know that the height of this Cathedral was far exceeding that of the Charminar, he unsuccessfully ordered that its height be brought down. The Right Reverend B. P. Sugandhar is the present Bishop in Medak.

The excavations at Kondapur, located 15 km from Sangareddy and 60 km from Medak, have brought to light the remains of Satavahana dynasty and a few Buddhist structures. The Kondapur Museum is maintained by the Archeological Survey of India. The Kondapur Museum contains about 8,100 antiquities at present. It houses the coins of the Satavahana kings which led some scholars to come to the conclusion that Kondapur was one of the thirty walled towns of the Satavahanas. There are the remains of Chaityas and Stupas indicating that Kondapur was once a great Buddhist center. Other things which were excavated and are on display include gold coin of the Roman Emperor Augustus (37 BC -14 AD), a few silver coins, bead pieces of terra cotta bangles, shell, ivory, copper and glass embossed with designs.
Natural features

Pocharam Forest & Wildlife Sanctuary, located 15 km from Medak and 115 km from Hyderabad, was the favourite hunting ground of the Nizam and was declared a wild life sanctuary in the early part of 20th century. Named after the Pocharam lake formed from bunding of the Allair in the years 1916 - 1922, it is spread over 9.12 km². Surrounded by lush green forest, it is rich in flora and fauna and attracts a lot of winged visitors, like the bar-headed goose, Brahminy ducks and open billed stork. There is a center for Eco-Tourism where visitors can see five species of antelopes and deer. Summer temperatures go up to 46 °C & in winter it drops to 6 °C. The sanctuary is home to animals like leopard, forest cat, wild dog, wolf, jackal, sloth bear, sambar, nilgai, chinkara, chital, and four-horned antelope.

7. Nalgonda

Nalgonda is a town and a municipality in Nalgonda district in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh.
Palaeolithic Age

During this period, people fashioned tools and weapons by chipping hard stones of convenient size and shape. This feature is testified by the findings of unifacial Palaeolithic implements of the Soan type at Yeleshwaram.
Neolithic Age

Traces of Neolithic culture were found at Chota Yelupu, where sling stones and other objects of interest were unearthed. The existence of Megalithic culture was revealed by the discovery of innumerable burials at various places like Tipparti, Nakrekal, Nalgonda etc.
Mauryas and Satavahanas

The political history of the district commences with the Mauryas. Mauryas, during the reign of Asoka the Great held their sway over this region. Later the region came under the overlordship of the Satavahanas who ruled between 230 BCE - 218 BCE. It was during this period the region established trade contacts with the Roman empire.

The Ikshvakus attained control over the region and ruled with their capital Vijayapuri. During this period Sakas and tled in this region. Buddhism flourished during this period.
Pallavas and Vishnukundinis

After the Ikshvakus, Pallavas and Vishnukundins fought for supremacy over the region. Luck favoured the Vishnukundins in the form of Samudragupta's invasion of the South. Vishnukundins ruled from first quarter of the fifth century to the first decade of the seventh century. Later Kubja Vishnuvardhana ruled this territory with Vengi as his capital.

A major portion of the district appears to have passed from the Chalukyas of Badami to the Rashtrakutas. Rashtrakutas fell in 973 and gave room to the Chalukyas of Kalyani. The sway of the Chalukyas continued until the end of the 12th century.
Medieval period

The district passed under the control of the Kakatiyas from the western Chalukyas. During Prataparudra's time the kingdom was annexed to the Tughluq empire in 1323. During Muhammad bin Tughluq's period, Musunuri chief Kapayanayaka ceded a part of Nalgonda to Ala-ud-din Hasan Bahman Shah. Later the region came under the rule of Recherlas of Rachakonda and Devarakonda. During Ahmad Shah I's period the region was annexed to Bahmani kingdom. Jalal Khan in 1455 declared himself king at Nalgonda, but it was a shortlived affair. The region was brought back to the Bahmani kingdom.

During the time of the Bahmani Sultan Shihabud-din Mahmun Sultan Quli was appointed as tarafdar of Telangana. From him the region was taken by his son Jamshid. Later the district remained under the control of Qutub Shahis until 1687.
Modern Period: Mughals and Asaf Jahis

Nizam-ul-Mulk (Asaf Jah I) defeated Mubasiz Khan at Shaker Khere in Berar and ruled the Deccan in an autonomous capacity. This district, like the other districts of Telangana, passed under the Asaf Jahis and remained under them for a period of nearly two hundred and twenty five years.

Nalgonda is a major railway station on the Guntur-Secunderabad line. It falls under the Guntur division of South Central Railway. 6 pairs of express trains halt here which connect the town to Howrah, Chennai and Hyderabad.

National Highway 9 passes through Nalgonda dist from Hyderabad to Vijayawada via Suryapet.
Fluoride Problem

Excess fluoride has turned the ground water into a slow poison especially in rural areas of nalgonda dist.885 villages and 600,000 people are affected and 10,000 people are totally crippled.Plans to bring clean water from the river Krishna are under way at a cost of 12 billion rupees.
Places of interest

* Yadagiri gutta:The Yadagiri Gutta which is most devotional place in Nalgonda is located near to Bhongir, It is close to Hyderabad,the capital city and the APSRTC runs many buses to the temple town from Mahatma Gandhi Bus Station. The temple draws huge crowds,especially during vacations and on weekends...This is the Place of worship for lord Laxmi Narasimha Swami.
* Mattapalli:One of the famous devotional places in A.P is also in Nalgonda dist.
* Nandikonda: a small village on the bank of the Krishna River where several Buddhist structures like monasteries and pillared halls were unearthed and preserved in a museum of the Central Archeological Department.
* Panagal: a village near Nalgonda. There are several ancient temples built under the reign of the Kakatiya and Reddy kings. There is an archeological museum which has several interesting artifacts.
* Vaadapalli:This is famous for its bridge and also called 'Triveni sangamam' where three rivers Krishna, godavari and moosi meet.
* Nagarjuna sagar: This is famous Dam in south india with 26 gates and electricity plant.There is also nice waterfalls located here called 'Ethipothala' and gowthama buddha museum.

More about Nalgonda

* Nalgonda dist. is famous for cement factories like Vishnu, priya, raasi etc and Sudhakar polymer pipes.

* Suryapet, Miryalguda and Thirumalagiri are famous Trading and Business centers in Nalgonda dist.

* Nalgonda dist. has got highest number of engineering colleges apart from Ranga reddy dist in the state of andhra pradesh.

* Pochampalli sarees which are famous in India are from nalgonda dist.

* Tollywood actors Jaya Prakash(JP-Vilan), Venumadhav, Uttej and lyricist Sudhala Ashok Teja are from Nalgonda dist.

* Ramakrishnareddy.B also known as sagar(VTCOLONY), also belong to the town of nalgonda

* Transport facility is very good from nalgonda to anywhere,both railway and Roadway. Nearest Airport Shamshabad is just 110 km away.

Prominent Schools at Nalgonda

* St.Alphonsus High School: English and Telugu Medium from L.K.G to X class co-ed is located in an area of 20 acres (81,000 m2) in the DVK road.This school is famous in Nalgonda District which is part of The Institute of the

Brothers of St. Gabriel with head office located in France. This school got students settled all over the world.

* Alpha Public School: English and Telugu Medium from L.K.G to X class co-ed is located in center of Nalgonda.The Standards of education is very good in this school especially for Mathematics.

* Aurobindo Public School : CBSE | English Medium | L.K.G to X class co-ed.| Established 1987,Nalgonda.

* Nalgonda Public School: CBSE | English Medium |L.K.G to X class co-ed.| One of the oldest CBSE schools in Nalgonda.
* VIDYA GRAMMAR HIGH SCHOOL:English and Telugu Medium from L.K.G to X class co-ed|Established in 1985 and a good school.
* ST MARY's HIGH SCHOOL:English Medium from L.K.G to X class co-ed|oldest and good school
* Little Flower Vignana Mandir: English and Telugu Medium from L.K.G to X class is located in the center of the town.It provides high value education and its students are working in all the renound sectors.

Prominent Degree Colleges

# Nagarjuna College (NG College)| NAAC 'B' accredited college
# Ragavendra College
# Kakatiya College
# Nalgonda College
# Alpha College
# Saptapadhi College
# marriguda: p.m.r.high school.
Prominent Junior Colleges

* APRJC at Nagarjuna Sagar
* Gouthami Junior College | one of the good colleges in Nalgonda
* Triveni Junior College | at Suryapet
* Nagarjuna Junior College
* Pragathi Junior College
* Aurobindo Junior College
* Alpha Junior college

8. Nizamabad district

Nizamabad is a district in Andhra Pradesh, India. It is also known as Indur. Nizamabad is the current and official name of the district. Nizam + Abad = Nizamabad, Abad means mass of people (Town).

The holy Godavari River enters into Andhra Pradesh from Nizamabad district at Kandhakurthi.

There are 36 mandals in Nizamabad district.

1) Ranjal
2) Navipet
3) Nandipet
4) Armur
5) Balkonda
6) Mortad
7) Kammar palle
8) Bheemgal
9) Velpur
10) Jakranpalle
11) Makloor
12) Nizamabad
13) Yeda palle
14) Bodhan
15) Kotagiri
16) Madnur
17) Jukkal
18) Bichkunda
19) Birkoor
20) Varni
21) Dichpalle
22) Dhar palle
23) Sirkonda
24) Machareddy
25) Sadasivanagar
26) Gandhari
27) Banswada
28) Pitlam
29) Nizamsagar
30) Yellareddy
31) Naga Reddipet
32) Lingampet
33) Tadwai
34) Kamareddy
35) Bhiknur
36) Domakonda


Nizamabad was formerly known as Indur and Indrapuri. It was ruled by the king Indra Vallabha Panthya Varsha Indra Som, of the Rashtrakuta Dynasty, in the 8th century, and took its name from him. In 1905 the railway line between Secundrabad and Manmad was constructed. The railway station was named after then ruler of the Nizam state Nizam-ul-Mulk as Nizamabad. The railway line connects Hyderabad and Mumbai. It is like North-South corridor. Has the distance of 161 km (100 mi) from Hyderabad and 640 km (400 mi) from Mumbai.

The Nizam Sagar dam was constructed in the year 1923 across the Manjira River at the village of Achampet. It irrigates 250,000 acres (1,000 km2; 390 sq mi) of land in Nizamabad district.

Nizamabad is in the north of Andhra Pradesh in the district of Nizamabad. It has different towns like Bodhan, Armur, Kamareddy and Banswada, In Bhodan town there is Nizam Sugar Factory. In early years it was the biggest in the Asia continent. Bodhan is a town with a mixture of people from many cultural and religious backgrounds. There is a largely visible community of Muslims as well as Christians and other religious communities. Once it was the capital of Nizamabad at the time of the Rashtrakuta Dynasty.

Recently Telangana University was established at Nizamabad, which serves the three districts of Adilabad, Medak and Nizamabad.
Places of interest

* Lake Asok Sagar has a neatly laid out garden, and a 18 ft (5.5 m) statue of Goddess Saraswati in the middle of the lake, just 7 km (4.3 mi) away from Nizamabad on the way to Basar. There is a swinging bridge and an octagonal shaped restaurant. It is interesting to note that the lake and its facilities are named as Asok Sagar, to honor one Collector, Asok Kumar, who had developed this. Ali Sagar is a lake with a hill top view. The famous Basar Saraswati Temple is located 35 km (22 mi) from here. Basar temple is the only other Saraswati Temple in south India.

* Archaeological and Heritage Museum - This museum was opened in October 2001. The District Archaeological Museum houses number of artifacts and antiquities representing the evolution of human civilisation right from Paleolithic to Vijaya Nagar Times (i.e. 16th A.D). The Museum is broadly divided into three sections, namely Archaeological Section, Sculptural gallery and Bronze and Decorative gallery. Bidri articles and arms and weapons of extensive variety are also exhibited.

* Quilla Ramalayam - Originally known as Indoor or Indrapuri, the city and fort were built by the Rashtrakutas. There is a 40 ft (12 m) high monolithic victory pillar built during the Rashtrakuta reign. The fort was occupied by Alauddin Khilji in 1311 A.D. and subsequently went into the hands of the Bahmani Sultanate, the Qutb Shahi dynasty, and then the Asaf Jahi dynasty. The present fort has a wide area encircled by masonry walls along with huge bastions at the corners. This 10th Century fort of the Rashtrakutas has continued to be of strategic importance right down to the Asaf Jahis. The present fort reflects the Asaf Jahi style of architecture with spacious halls and a summer house. Adding importance to the fort is the Bada Rammandir Temple, built by Samarth Ram Das, the guru of Cha­trapathi Shivaji. The fort offers a panoramic view of the Niza­mabad city and its surroundings.
* rudrur-this village has a rice and sugercane research center. It is working from nearly 50 years. and recently started agricultur pollytechnich college hare.
* Mallaram Forest - Mallaram Forest is just 7 km (4.3 mi) away from Niza­mabad. Ensconced in Sylvan surroundings it is the perfect place for eco-tourism. Forest treks, a pagoda and a view point tower are main attractions.

* Alisagar - Alisagar is 10 km (6.2 mi) from Nizamabad and 2 km (1.2 mi) off the Nizamabad-Basar road. The forest spread along with the summer house, well laid out gardens, an island and hilltop guest house make it a favoured getaway. Adding to the attraction is the deer park and facilities for trekking and water sports.

* Rock formations-Armoor Road - Located on the highway, Armoor is a natural stopover for all traffic. The hillock of boulders is the result of natural weathering over millions of years. On top of hillock is the Navanatha Siddeswara temple. The local people believe that Navanathas or Siddhas, venerable sages, still live in the natural caves and caverns of these hillocks. The water spot nearby area has been drawing people in large numbers for it is believed that the water has curative powers, healing chronic diseases and disabilities.[citation needed]

* Domakonda Fort - Domakonda is 4 km (2.5 mi) off the main highway and 15 km (9.3 mi) from Kamareddy. Domakonda was a Samsthanam under Qutubshahis and Asaf Jahis. The Reddy rulers of Domakonda Samsthanam built the fort in the 18th century at a sight where a fort existed earlier. The entrance to the fort has an arched gateway reflect­ing Asaf Jahis influence. The fort has bastions both square as well as circular, built at irregular intervals. Inside the fort are two palaces and a temple complex. The temple dedicated to Shiva was built on stellate plan, imitating the Kakatiya style of architecture. This fort is an example of the defence architecture of the princely states of Telangana.

* Telangana University - started in Nizamabad city at Giriraj College, Dubba, Nizamabad and makeship office and classes have going in and the permanent site is coming near Dichpalli Highway from year 2006 to 2007. Nizamabad has become corporation in 2005.

Religious places

* Sri Laxmi Narshima Swamy -- Sri Laxmi Narshima Swamy Temple Famous for Astah(8 Corner) Muki(faced) Koneru which resides on the top of Hill. About 9 KM from Nizamabad city on the way to AliSagar
* Limbadri Gutta (Hills) - Sri Narasimha Swamy Temple is located on the Linbadri Hill located in a Serene atmosphere. The spot is 5 km away form Bheemgal town and 55 km from Nizamabad. Every year a carnival is held from Kartika Sudda Thadiya to Trayodasi.

* Bada Pahad - People pay homage to Dargah of Syed Sadullah Hus­saini located on the hills between Varni & Chandur. This is also a jathara spot.

* Bichkunda - "Shivaratri Festival" day, every year, the famous Basawa Lingappa Swamy fair takes place in Bichkunda, attracts several devotees not only from Andhra Pradesh but also from the states of Maharashtra and Karnataka.

* Sarangapur - About 8 km (5.0 mi) from Nizamabad city, there is a large Hanuman Temple at Sarangapur, considered a holy shrine in the district. The saint Samartha Ramadas, the Guru of Chatrapati Shivaji had laid the foundation for the temple about 452 years ago. With easy accessibility, and availability of electricity, protected water supply, dharmasala, garden, children's park etc., the place attracts a considera­ble number of pilgrims every day.

* Kanteshwar - In Nizamabad in a locality called, Kanteshwar an ancient temple of Lord Shiva "Neela Kanteshwar" attracts a large number of devotees in the district. This temple was constructed by the Satavahana king, Satakarni-II for the Jains. The structure resembles the North Indian Architectural style. The festival of Rathasapthami is an annual event celebrated on a grand scale in this temple.

* Madhavnagar - The Sai Baba temple constructed many years ago, has been developed to include a dharmashala, protected water supply, garden etc.


Nizamabad is one of nine assembly constituencies in Nizamabad district. They are Nizamabad Urban, Nizamabad Rural,Kamareddy, Bodhan, Yellareddy, Armoor, Balkonda, Jukkal, and Banswada.
Manjeera Riverbed

Manjeera River runs through the district by covering, Nizamsagar, Banswada, Birkur, Pothangal, Kandukurthi and all the way Pochampadu/godavari

The nearest airports are at Hyderabad 162 km (101 mi) and Warangal 230 km (140 mi). Nizamabad is connected by rail to Hyderabad and Mumbai section, station code NZB.

Nizamabad is well connected by road ways and has volvo service to Hyderabad and Mumbai. Bus service is one of the important methods of transportation in Nizamabad. Nizamabad is near the National Highway No. 7, which goes from Kanyakumari in the south to Varanasi in north India, and the new North South Corridor of NHDP. National Highway No. 16 starts from Nizamabad and passes through Karimnagar to Jagadalpur in the state of Chhattisgarh.
Rail Transport

NIZAMABAD (Station Code : NZB) is a station located on the Kachiguda-Manmad section of Hyderabad(HYB) Division of South Central Railway(SCR). Nizamabad has rail connectivity with Manmad, Aurangabad, Nanded, Parbhani, Parli Vaijnath, latur, Osmanabad, Gangakhed, Mudkhed, Adilabad, Nagpur, Basar, Nizamabad, Nasik, Mumbai, Pune, Daund, Mahbubnagar, Kurnool, Kadapa, Renigunta, Tirupati, Katpadi, Erode, Madurai and Kachiguda(HYB). Ajanta Express between Kachiguda and Manmad is the most prestigious train passing through this station. Earlier there used to ply Ellora Express exclusively between Manmad and Nizamabad. This train has been cancelled during Gauge Conversion Process.

9. Rangareddy district

Rangareddy district (also sometimes spelled Ranga Reddy) is a district in the state of Andhra Pradesh, India. The district has an area of 7,493 km², and a population of 3,575,064 of which 54.20% is urban as of 2001.[1] The district encircles the city and district of Hyderabad, and the city of Hyderabad also serves as the administrative center of the district. Originally named Hyderabad (Rural) district, it was renamed after Konda Venkata Ranga Reddy, a freedom fighter who fought for the independence of Telangana from the Nizams and who went on to become the deputy chief minister of Andhra Pradesh.
Assembly Constituencies

There are 14 assembly constituencies in Rangareddy district. They are Medchal, Malkajgiri, Qutbullapur, KukAtpally, Uppal ,Ibrahimpatnam,L B Nagar,MaheShwaram,Rajendranagar,SerlIngampally,Chevella,Pargi,Vikarabadand Tandur.

Mandals are third-level administrative areas in India, below states and districts. The mandals in the Rangareddi district are:

1. Balanagar
2. Bantwaram
3. Basheerabad
4. Chevella
5. Dharur
6. Doma
7. Gandeed
8. Ghatkesar
9. Hayathnagar
10. Ibrahimpatnam
11. Kandukur
12. Keesara
13. Kulkacharla
14. Maheswaram
15. Malkajgiri
16. Manchal
17. Marpalle
18. Medchal
19. Moinabad
20. Mominpet
21. Nawabpet
22. Pargi
23. Peddemul
24. Pudur
25. Quthbullapur
26. Rajendranagar
27. Saroornagar
28. Serilingampalle
29. Shabad
30. Shamirpet
31. Shamshabad
32. Shankarpalli
33. Tandur
34. Uppal Kalan
35. Vikarabad
36. Yacharam
37. Yalal

10. Warangal

Warangal is a district in Andhra Pradesh, India. The administrative city is Warangal.

Warangal District has an area of 12,846 km², and a population of 3,246,004 of which 19.20% was urban as of 2001. [1] The district is bounded by Karimnagar District to the north, Khammam District to the east and southeast, Nalgonda District to the southwest, and Medak District to the west. Warangal is well known for its granite quarries (notably the black and brown varieties) and as a market for rice, chilies, cotton, and tobacco.

The Warangal district headquarter is Warangal city. This city is also called as tri-city, as it includes Warangal, Hanamkonda and Kazipet cities. It is the biggest city in Telangana after Hyderabad (state capital).

The district hosts the Samakka-Sarakka Jatara congregation. Every two years, approximately ten million people converge over three days around the small village of Tadvai, 90 km from Warangal city. This fair commemorates the valiant fight put up by a mother-daughter combination with the reigning rulers over an unjust law.

Warangal has been recently in the news because of the Separate Telangana issue. It has been a major centre for the movement and its rebirth.

Kaloji Narayana Rao is a freedom fighter and a well known writer from Telangana.


Road Transport

National Highway 202 (India) between Hyderabad - Bhopalpatnam (Chhattisgarh) runs through the district. Warangal city is surrounded with small towns like Bhoopalpally (Indrasena Reddy and Mamatha), Parkal(its a mandal with all the amenities like Govt.Hospital,Lot of schools,5 cinema theatres,35 kilometres from warangal), Narsampet, Torrur and Jangaon each 30-50 kilometers distant.

Warangal is about 140 km distant by road from Hyderabad (capital of Andhra Pradesh).

Rail transport

The city has a major railway junction called Kazipet.


Hyderabad International Airport is about 3 ½ hours by road from Warangal city. This district has a small airport, Mamnoor, which could accommodate small aircraft like the ATR 42.
Education at Warangal District

Educational institutions

Some of the major educational institutions in this district are:

1. SVS College of Engineering, Bheemaram
2. SVS College of Pharmacy, Bheemaram
3. Jayamukhi Institute Of Technological Sciences( Official Website )
4. Kakatiya University( Official Website )
5. National Institute of Technology, Warangal (formerly REC Warangal — An engineering education institute)
6. Kakatiya Medical College – A medical education institute which has a 1000 bed general hospital attached to it.
7. Kakatiya Institute of Technology and Science engineering college established in 1980.
8. Christu Jyoti Institute of Technology and Science Engineering College,Yeshwanthapur, Jangaon, Warangal.
9. Balaji Institute of Technology and Science Engineering College,maheswaram,Narsampet,Warangal.
10. Ramappa engineering college in shyampet,hanamkonda,warangal.(
11. Vaagdevi engineering college
12. St. Peters Pharmacy college

There are several engineering colleges situated around the city, producing thousands of engineering students every year.

1. Markaji High school
2. Loyola Public school
3. St. Thomas Grammar High School
4. St. Peters High School
5. St. Pauls high School



* Ram Lakshman(Adlabs)
* Gemini(Adlabs)
* Gemini Mayuri(Adlabs)
* Devi
* Kakatiya 35MM
* Kakatiya 70MM
* Ramakrishna
* Sitarama
* Sunil
* Radhika
* Susheel
* Venkatrama
* Natraj


* Amrutha
* Ashoka
* Sridevi
* Vijaya



Business and Industry


4BrainZ Software Solutions Its first kind of Software development, Web design, development, domain registration and hosting company In Warangal district.

1. 4Brainz Software Solutions Pvt. Ltd.
2. Arkay Software Solutions Pvt. Ltd.

IT/ITES Hardware

In 2001 Software Technology Parks of India started its branch in NIT Warangal premises to issue single window facilities, fast track permissions to IT, ITES companies & hardware parks so that IT/ITES parks can be established easily. Some software companies like IBSS Software Solutions and LINUS InfoTech are planning to start their companies in Warangal because of the low living cost, low pollution and good infrastructure facilities.[citation needed]

IT SEZ is also being set-up by APIIC and K Raheja Group in Madikonda/Rampur area on the outskirts of Kazipet Town


This district is famous for producing cotton. Cotton ginning is done here and supplied to places like Mumbai and Coimbatore.

* Nadikattu Cotton Industries - Warangal -India

Food processing

The district is home to the Regional Research Center of the Acharya N. G. Ranga Agricultural University. This district is famous for red chilly exports. Most of the chilly exports go to Nagpur, Mumbai and Pune. Watermelon, Musk melon and Gherkins are grown in the district. Nekkonda, Dornakal, Torrur and Mahabubabad are known for Mango gardens. Vegetables are supplied to Visakhapatnam, Chennai, Vijayawada, Bangalore, Nagpur and Hyderabad .
Mandals at Warangal District

1. Cheriyal
2. Maddur(Warangal Dist.)
3. Narmetta
4. Bachannapet
5. Jangaon
6. Lingala Ghanpur
7. RaghunathaPalli
8. Ghanpur (Station)
9. Dharmasagar
10. Hasanparthy
11. Hanamkonda
12. Wardhannapet
13. Zaffergadh
14. Palakurthi
15. Devaruppula
16. Kodakandla
17. Raiparthy
18. Thorrur
19. Nellikudur
20. Narsimhulapet
21. Maripeda
22. Dornakal
23. Kuravi
24. Mahabubabad
25. Kesamudram
26. Nekkonda
27. Gudur
28. Kothagudem
29. Khanapur
30. Narsampet
31. Chennaraopet
32. Parvathagiri
33. Sangam
34. Nallabelly
35. Duggondi
36. Geesugonda
37. Atmakur
38. Shayampet
39. Parkal
40. Regonda
41. Mogullapalle
42. Chityal
43. Bhupalpalle
44. Ghanapur
45. Mulug
46. Venkatapur
47. Govindaraopet
48. Tadvai
49. Eturnagaram
50. Mangapet
51. Warangal


  1. Post maps of different districts in erstwhile Nizam state particularly of Telangana region

  2. Thanks for sharing this great article! That is very interesting I love reading and I am always searching for informative information like this.

    Todays Gold Rate in Vijayawada

  3. 15 August is the most historic day in Indian history as the nation celebrates its Independence Day.
    India will celebrate its 71st Independence Day on August 15, 2017.
    Independence day quotes in telugu 2017

  4. Ganesh Chaturthi (IAST: Gaṇēśa Chaturthī), also known as Vinayaka Chaturthi(Vināyaka Chaturthī), is the Hindu festival that reveres god Ganesha. A ten-day festival, it starts on the fourth day of Hindu luni-solar calendar month Bhadrapada, which typically falls in Gregorian months of August or September.

    Happy Ganesh Chaturthi 2017 Quotes